Magnetic terms/Glossary

What to know about magnets

Anisotropic
means that a material's property has different values depending on the direction. This means that when magnets are made, a strong magnetic field is created in which the “elementary magnets” align themselves in the direction specified by the field. When magnetised with the field direction along the preferred axis later on, you obtain much better magnetic values than in another direction.

Isotropic
means that a material's property has identical values in all directions For magnets, this means that no direction is favoured when magnetising in the direction of a specific axis.

Preferred direction
Alignment of the magnetic crystals in a specific direction.

Permanent magnet 
A permanent magnet is a magnet that shows and maintains a static magnetic field.

Operating temperature
The operating temperature specifies the maximum temperature at which the magnet can be used. In general, the adhesive force of the magnetic systems drops when operating at a higher temperature. Intense heating up (temperature rises above the so-called Curie temperature) results in irreversible demagnetisation. 

Air gap
Space or distance between two opposing surfaces of a magnet or magnet system and, in reverse, a magnet or magnet system or magnetisable object. The space between the areas does not have to consist of a magnetic material.

Magnetism
Magnetism is a physical phenomenon; a sub-area of electro-magnetism as one of the four basic forces in physics. Magnetism can be described using the H magnetic field and B magnetic flux density. Magnetism is produced by moving electrical loads or by magnetic angular momentum as well as the spin of the electrons. Moreover, magnetism is expressed as a force conveyed through the magnetic field, starting from magnetic objects (such as permanent magnets) or affecting them (such as iron).

Magnetise
A magnetic field causes the elemental magnetic parts to align. The object therefore becomes magnetic.

Magnet system
A magnet combined with other Metal and/or plastic components

Rare earth metals (SE) are among the metals or the 14 chemical elements in the periodic table that follow lanthanum, the lanthanoids, as well as scandium and yttrium. Neodymium is considered one of the light rare earths (Cer group).